Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product encompasses the monetary value of all the goods and services that have attained completion, produced within the borders of a certain country and additionally should be within a defined timeline. The elements that make GDP distinctive is the fact that it encompasses all the public as well as private consumption, investments, government outlays as well as the exports, ignoring the imports that are occurring with the defined territory. In a nutshell, GPP presents a broad assessment of a country’s general economic activity (Higgs, 2015).

The HDI is a tool that the UN developed to assist in the assessment and consequently rank the levels of social as well as economic development in different countries through the application of the four set criteria. These include life expectancy at birth, the average years of schooling, and the expected number of schooling years as well as the gross national income per capita. Through the HDI, it is possible to track the variations in development levels over a certain course of time and additionally to offer comparison for the developments that are occurring in different countries. The creation of the HDI was meant to serve the objective of emphasizing that people along with their abilities need to be the decisive criteria for the assessment of the developments that are taking place in a country and not just the economic growth (Darvishan & Hakimzadeh, 2015). HDI are also applicable to the assessment of the national policy choices by asking the manner in which two countries that have a similar level of GNI per capita are ending up with dissimilar human development outcomes. These dissimilarities are applied in developing debates on the policy priorities by a government.

Inclusive wealth entails a monetary measure that is made if the summation of the natural, physical as well as the human assets. The natural capital encompasses the forests, land, fossil fuels as well as the minerals. The human capital is in reference to the population’s skills and education. The physical which represents the manufactured products encompass things as buildings, machinery as well as infrastructure. The reference point of the IWR is the fact that the productive base of a nation is dependent on the human capital, manufactured capital as well as the natural capital (Polasky, et al., 2015). The assessment of the human along with the natural produced capital that encompass the components of inclusive wealth provide a broader as well as a more comprehensive assessment of the performance of a country’s economy. Through the reliance on IWR as the economic measurement tool, countries will enjoy an innovative yardstick that will be offering them a new perspective relating to their economic performance in the recent decades. The measurement is better that the traditionally applied GDP in offering a reflection of the sustainable development of nations.

There are various attribute that make GDP a poor measure of a country’s economic progress. These challenges demerits include: GDP does not take into account the measurements of the quality of life in country. The quality is applied in the evaluation of the general wellbeing of individuals as well as societies in that it is wrong to confuse the quality of live with standards of living which relies on the primary income. Quality of life entails employment, wealth, physical as well as mental health and education among others Higgs, 2015). The fact that GDP fails to take the quality of life into consideration during its measurements makes it s limited measure of a nation’s progress. GDP ignores the impact that the informal markets have on an economy. It fails to address the activities of the black market where the money that is spent does not get regulated. The failure to comprehensively address the informal markets thus makes GDP a limited measure of economic progress of a nation. The fact that GDP has the tendency of overestimating the negative externalities which are the bad effects that third parties suffer following the production or consumption of a good or service makes it poor measures of economic progress. Whenever there is an increase in the GDP, there is also a concurrent increase in the adversarial externalities such as water and air pollution (Higgs, 2015). As GDP overestimates the negative externalities, it consequently limits it as a criteria for examining the welfare that between different countries.

Another measure that applies to assessing the progress of a nation is the genuine progress indicator (GPI). The advantages that come with GPI is the fact that it assists the policy makers to assess the well their citizen are doing both socially and economically (Hayashi, 2015). Human development index as an additional measure assesses the progress of a nation in three dimensions of human development. These include a healthy and long life attributed to the life expectancy at birth, knowledge attributed to the school enrollment rates and literacy levels as well as decent living standards seen via the GDP per capita. The ecological footprint as the additional measure assesses quantity of land as well as waters area that a human populations needs to be able to produce the resources they consume as well as to absorb its water via the available technologies.

Security and privacy impact

Introduction
The incidents relating to security are on the rise at an alarming rate each year. Additional there is an increase of these threats complexity so do measures for security that are needed to protect the networks. Network administrators, data center operator’s m, and other professionals in the data center have to comprehend the security basics so as to manage safely and deploy the networks of today.

The internet has transformed the way people connect in the present era. The use of the internet presents whole new options for organizations and users are it in social networking, e-commerce, and enterprises among others. Since many people are now using and enjoying the benefits of the internet, the main question is how well protected are the networks from intruders. For a long time the question has been the use of the firewall, but how long will it take for the firewall become extinct (Singer, and Friedman 2014).

This paper presents the current practice of securing the networks systems by use of firewalls to determine if they are becoming extinct. I the paper also outline the aspects that the network engineers should expect internet security to be in the next two years. I finally I will give a picture of how networks will be like in the next two years in light with the mobile devices proliferation (Kaplan, Chinn, and Marcus, 2015).

With the proliferation of devices with wireless productivity, such as tablets and smartphones, the number of devices having access and connections with the data centers are exploding. The proliferation increases the perimeter security burden since these devices enhance additional services accessibility from any location with a greater volume of traffic. The distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks is taking toll of online businesses. Though some cases of DDoS attacks may occur from non-economic reasons as they were the case of the past, they are now being taken advantage of by attackers who are monetary driven including corporate revenue, competitive advantage, and extortion. About DDoS protection, many Internet data Centers operators and enterprises tend to have a false sense of security. They think their services security from the DDoS attacks by simply deploying firewalls and intrusion prevention systems in front of their services. However, these deployments do expose companies to irate customers and service outages. The IDC and enterprises lose money when there are on critical services of the business, and this damages their customer relationship. Additional when there are no services as a result of external attacks, it can be unwelcome and sensational front pages news damaging the reputation of the company yet it is a damage that can be prevented (Gehem, Usanov and Frinking 2015).

There is also a new type of DDos attack that threatens the viability of a business service provider. Thus, the attacks have the potential of harming the e-commerce. The firewalls, IPS devices and other products for security are vital aspects in a layered -defense strategy. However, they are only meant to solve security problems that are different from DDoS mitigation and detection products. The firewall only acts a policy were enforcing the prevention of access to unauthorized data. Additionally, the IPS devices are for blocking the in attempts that lead to theft of data. Moreover, the firewalls and IPS devices are in line, state solutions and they are vulnerable to the DDoS attacks since they become the targets.

Therefore in this moving, and the highly open world the walled -garden of the old approach to securing the computers as the intranets and firewalls are getting out of step (Abouzakhar, 2015).

What should network engineers expect to happen with security in 2 years?

Security professionals in the next two years are expected to update their skills in new technologies. They will adapt, update and identify skills of dealing with the state-backed espionage in democratic states since it will no longer be only for North Korea and China. Businesses will also face complications in Balkanized Internet which will no longer work. Thus, it is essential for the internet engineers to maintain and coordinate partnership regarding information sharing across the servers. It will provide stronger support to cyber resilience and engage other multi-stakeholders in the process of governance in sharing intelligence (Lindstrom, 2008). The accessibility of web-based services from a broader internet will be the main target for activists, competitors, and others for political or negative agenda (Stevens, 2015).

Also, as data centers become more focused on the users, the customers and employee will increasingly depend on the internet services. Therefore, there is a need for enterprises to ensure that their main data center services maintain accessibility not just within the technical contingencies but also from the motivated opposition (Brenner, 2011).

The increasing connectivity as a result of the internet use and its ability to accessibility anywhere means that it is vital to segment properly the internal network by ensuring that the internal threats, as well as improper accesses, are not allowed to the data center. The core firewall segmentation should at the same time keep increasing its speed within the network core what will networks look like in 2 years, given the proliferation of mobile devices?

Traffic for mobile devices will need major emphasis on small packet performance with the gearing of data center applications towards smaller bites and screens of information. Other solutions for network security will also be for them to attain their performance specifications similar to the larger packet sizes. However, they can significantly degrade when traffic shifts to the smaller packet sizes and larger numbers of users. With the increase of the care network, there will be the need for high -speed 100 GbE and 40 GbE, as well as high port density, becomes vital. Also, there will be a need for network security appliances applicable throughout the data centers so as to connect efficiently within the high-speed fabric network (Lee 2015).

Conclusion
As the fight against cyber warfare and online crime continues to grow, and then there is the need for highly trained professionals on cyber security with relevant skills. Predicting the state of cyber security in the next few years gives an opportunity for every IT security engineers to perfect his or her skills.

Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) at Teerthanker Mahaveer University: A Pathway to Success

Teerthanker Mahaveer University (TMU), located in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, stands as a beacon of excellence in higher education. Among its diverse array of programs, the Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) degree holds a prominent position. This program is meticulously designed to equip students with comprehensive knowledge and skills essential for thriving in the dynamic world of commerce and business.

Why Choose B.Com at TMU?
Comprehensive Curriculum:
The B.Com program at TMU offers a well-rounded curriculum that covers key areas of commerce such as accounting, finance, marketing, economics, and business law. This broad spectrum ensures that students gain a thorough understanding of both theoretical and practical aspects of commerce.

Experienced Faculty:
TMU prides itself on its team of highly qualified and experienced faculty members. These educators bring a wealth of knowledge and industry experience, providing students with valuable insights and real-world perspectives that enhance learning.

Modern Infrastructure:
The university boasts state-of-the-art infrastructure, including well-equipped classrooms, computer labs, and libraries. These facilities provide an ideal environment for academic pursuits and research activities, fostering a culture of continuous learning.

Industry Integration:
TMU emphasizes the importance of bridging the gap between academia and industry. The B.Com program includes regular interactions with industry experts, internships, and workshops. These opportunities enable students to gain practical experience and stay updated with the latest industry trends.

Holistic Development:
Beyond academics, TMU focuses on the overall development of students. The university offers various extracurricular activities, including sports, cultural events, and leadership programs. These activities help in nurturing well-rounded individuals ready to face the challenges of the corporate world.

Specializations and Electives
The B.Com program at TMU offers a range of specializations, allowing students to tailor their education according to their career aspirations. Some of the popular specializations include:

Accounting and Finance: This specialization focuses on advanced accounting practices, financial management, and investment strategies. It prepares students for careers in accounting firms, financial institutions, and corporate finance departments.
Marketing: This stream delves into the principles of marketing, consumer behavior, and strategic brand management. Graduates can pursue careers in advertising, market research, and sales management.
Human Resource Management: This area covers the essentials of managing workforce resources, including recruitment, training, and organizational development. It equips students for roles in HR departments across various industries.
International Business: This specialization addresses global trade, international marketing, and cross-cultural management. It prepares students for careers in multinational corporations and international trade organizations.
Career Opportunities
Graduates of the B.Com program from TMU are well-prepared for a wide range of career opportunities. Some of the prominent career paths include:

Chartered Accountant (CA): With a solid foundation in accounting and finance, B.Com graduates can pursue additional qualifications to become Chartered Accountants.
Financial Analyst: Analyzing financial data and trends to provide insights and recommendations for business decisions is a key role for B.Com graduates.
Marketing Manager: Overseeing marketing strategies, campaigns, and brand development efforts are common responsibilities in this role.
Human Resource Manager: Managing recruitment, employee relations, and organizational development falls under this career path.
Entrepreneurship: Armed with comprehensive business knowledge, many B.Com graduates venture into starting their own businesses.
Alumni Success
TMU takes pride in its successful alumni network. Graduates of the B.Com program have excelled in various fields, contributing significantly to the corporate world, public sector, and entrepreneurial ventures. The strong alumni network also provides current students with mentorship opportunities and industry connections, further enhancing their career prospects.

Admission Process
The admission process for the B.Com program at TMU is straightforward. Prospective students must meet the eligibility criteria, which typically include completing higher secondary education with a minimum percentage in relevant subjects. The university also considers entrance exam scores and conducts personal interviews to select candidates.

Conclusion
Teerthanker Mahaveer University’s B.Com program stands out as an excellent choice for students seeking a robust foundation in commerce and business. With its comprehensive curriculum, experienced faculty, modern infrastructure, and strong industry connections, TMU provides an environment conducive to academic excellence and professional growth. By choosing the B.Com program at TMU, students embark on a journey that equips them with the skills, knowledge, and confidence needed to succeed in the competitive world of commerce and beyond.