Final Reflection Paper

1. In this course, we have focused on approaches that focus on the “higher levels” of the social-ecological model (organization, community, policy). What are two benefits of focusing public health practice on the higher levels versus the individual/interpersonal levels?

a. Please include specific examples to support each of the two benefits that you identify.

Community interventions and medical policies that cover higher levels, significantly contribute to minimizing the burden of poor health in the society as it covers an enormous number. For instance, community health nursing covers both the person and the entire family hence promoting good health. Through community nursing, it is easier to identify genetic disorders than it would be if the diagnosis and treatment got done at the individual level. After identification, proper treatment or preventive measure can get prescribed for the family, and even for the unborn children so as to treat or minimize the impact of the disorder. The general practitioner can also observe family interactions and risk factors that can be the cause if the disease. Ockene, et al., (2007), states that public health threats get addressed and prevented best from a community and multi-level perspective, through the media and increasing collaborations in the health systems.

Public health at higher levels is not only cheap but also encourages public participation hence improving the quality and state of health care. For example, community vaccination against a disease covers a wider number of individuals at a lower cost but delivers a great outcome as more people get vaccinated. Public health care at higher levels involves targeting communities with a similar factor such as geographic region, race, gender, or a particular health condition, and this makes it easier to manage using few resources in a short time framework. The media has also played a significant role in educating and mobilizing a large number of people regarding a certain public health concert at a low cost and within a short time.

2. Which one of the following approaches do you think should be the highest priority for public health practice? B. Community-Based Prevention C. Media Advocacy D. Prevention Policy & Legislative Advocacy E. Addressing Corporate Practices Explain and justify your choice, including responses to the following.

a. How does this approach contribute to public health practice?

b. Why is it more important/effective than the other approaches?

c. Why is it well-suited to an ecological perspective?

Media Advocacy

Media advocacy gets defined as a kind of public health communication that entails the use of various media for different purposes in the health sector. These purposes include communication of public health issues and measures, shape people’s opinion, mobilization of society’s activists and influencing decision makers on legal and public health policies. Media advocacy is a powerful tool for addressing numerous public health issues and threats more than community-Based Prevention, Prevention Policy, and Legislative Advocacy and addressing Corporate Practices. Media advocacy entails the multi-levels of public healthcare interventions that are individual, organization, network and society levels. It involves the prevention, treatment, and management of public health concerns.

Media applies different strategies to improve public health practice. One of the common techniques is through mass media (television, radio, internet, print publications and films) to disseminate information to the public (Edberg, 2007). Communication campaigns for public health practices such as campaigns against drug and substance abuse and best practices to promote public health that get communicated through public media influence people’s behaviors. Mass media may also get used to gain public support regarding a particular public health policy hence influencing the decision makers. The internet is also a vital tool for providing information concerning a public health issue as well as creating awareness. Technological advancement has also enabled easier interactions between the patient and the physician, such as tethered patient portals that allow communications between healthcare providers and the patient. These tethered patient portals enhance chronic disorder management, patient-health provider communication, patient’s compliance with medications and preventive services, and patient satisfaction (Otte-Trojel, et. al. 2014). The media also includes campaign programs such as the Truth campaign, campaign against HIV/AIDS, and National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign that promote public health through messages and campaign activities targeting the youth and parents. Media advocacy is also effective because, unlike the objective of addressing corporate practices that focus on a specific group, media advocacy reaches all individuals whether affected or not affected by the issue. Unlike prevention policy and legislative policy, media advocacy also covers o treatment and diagnosis of the public health issue.

Media advocacy is important and effective in the public health sector due to various reasons. Media advocacy can reach a broad audience in limited time. This audience includes decision makers, and individuals in remote areas that do not have access to a health facility, areas with poor infrastructure as well as areas hit by disasters such as floods. Media advocacy is effective since information always disseminated has a greater credibility than information presented through paid media advertisements. Media advocacy is also important since it is less costly. Media advocacy is one among the few public health interventions in which focus gets directed upstream to influence the environment in which individuals make various healthcare decisions. It gets used to accelerate and amplify the policy work so as to achieve the public health objectives for a safe and healthy environment in an informed and quick manner. Rowitz (2002), states that when media advocacy is community-based its most effective and entails collaborative measures at framing concerns, defining agendas, and monitoring the effectiveness of policy proposals.

Media advocacy in public health is well suited to an ecological perspective since it blends communications, politics, research and advocacy in achieving public health objectives (Dorfman & Krasnow, 2014).

3. Briefly, discuss which one of the approaches you think would be your preferred focus if you choose a career in public health. Some questions to consider:

a. Which one of the approaches do you feel best matches your personal strengths and weaknesses?

b. Which one do you feel is most aligned with the public health issues you are interested?

c. In what way do you anticipate that you would be involved in this approach?

Media advocacy
If I chose a career in public health, I would select media advocacy since by using the approach I would be able to reach a broad audience as well as influence public health policies. Through the use of creative writing which is one among my personal strengths, I would significantly make an impact in the public health sector. My publications and articles would emphasize on preventive and proper health habits, hence result in decreased health issues. I would also use research to identify emerging health threats and warn people in advance hence mitigate the impact of the risk or eliminate the problem.

Media advocacy is the most aligned with the public health issues of interest. For instance, most diseases are as a result of lack of information of certain avoidable actions. For example, diseases caused by poor dietary or tobacco and alcohol abuse or poor sanitation could easily get avoided and minimized if the community gets sensitized to the effects of these activities. Other diseases such as polio that can get prevented through immunization can get avoided if the society gets sensitized to the importance of vaccination of children at an early age. My aim in these activities would be to make the world a better place where diseases get prevented more that they get treated.

As an activist in public health sector, I would get involved in creative writing to sensitize people on certain components of public health. These components include effects of drug and substance abuse, the importance of maintaining a clean environment, proper hygiene, and public health. I would also get involved in organizing community support for the change in public health policies. I would also make publications regarding the current government policies regarding public health, the newest research regarding diseases and the effective prevention measures and also changes in the trend of the illnesses.

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Superstition Assignment

Superstitions are a type of magic that people believe that practicing certain rituals brings them good luck, prevent illness, evade evil, and other related outcomes. As such, superstitions can be in different types depending on the context. The remarks or actions made by others can be superstitious in some way.

I experienced an incident that seemed superstitious. I used to visit my grandmother during holidays to spend some time with her and assist her in the daily chores. However, in one particular incidence, she made some remarks that appeared superstitious. She said that she had a grudge with my other family members because they neglected her in her time of need. According to my understanding, the remarks seemed superstitious since I did not know how she could react in her grudge against my family members. She could even do harm to me as a form of revenge.

In one instance, a young man came straight to a lady and started hurling insults at her without a clear basis of the source of the hostility. The lady felt disturbed and concerned that she did not know the guy and yet went ahead to insult her. I find the incident superstitious since no one can tell the reason the guy behaved the way he did. It leaves a lot to think about because they were strangers to each other. The unclear intentions of the young man make it very superstitious.

Another incident involved two ladies who were not in good terms. One lady, Janette used to visit the other on weekends and carried a small bag which she used to forget intentionally behind only to be reminded later about it. The trend continued on several occasions until the other lady became suspicious of a small bag. The actions by Janette are superstitious since she might be sending a clear signal to the other lady of bad luck. The fact that she left the small bag intentionally shows that she there was something she intended to do the other lady.

I think that all the examples outlined clear explanations about superstitions based on personal remarks or actions. In the first incident, my grandmother ought not to say the remarks she said because they live a lot to consider. The remarks elicit fear and imaginations about the likely course of action that she intended to take. She could leave a curse, cause evil, or seek for revenge in very negative ways. Thus, I think that my grandmother would not be satisfied even after revenging due to inner thought struggles. In the second instance, the young man could not insult the lady since she was innocent by her being a stranger. It is likely that the guy had a mistaken identity that makes it very superstitious to judge his actions. I think that the remedy for the behavior would be requesting to know more about the events leading to the incident. The third instance involved a superstitious action. It is not clear to the observer what Janette meant by leaving her bag intentionally. People could imagine that Janette desired to do harm to the other lady and used the bag to entice her. It is likely that there was something bad inside the bag meant to cause harm to the lady.

The need to identify superstitious actions and remarks from others is important in evaluating the cases identified. It is easy to differentiate between superstitious actions and remarks to others due to the expected turn of events. The arguments given in class are a good foundation to help in evaluating the cases.